The Full Range Leadership Model

Research by Bruce J. Avolio, Ph.D & Bernard M. Bass, Ph.D. 

The Full Range Leadership Model (FRLM) is the world’s most popular framework for understanding and evaluating transformational leadership behaviours and outcomes. The FRLM is backed by over 35 years of independent research and prescribes 32 specific high-performance leadership behaviours that directly drive productivity, effectiveness, and satisfaction in the workplace.

The model is used as a framework for evaluating high performance leadership behaviours and enables the transformation of leadership value. The three global leadership styles are summarised below:

Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership is a process of influencing in which leaders change their associates’ awareness of what is important and move them to see themselves, their opportunities, and challenges in a new way. Transformational leaders are proactive and lead people to strive to a higher level of potential beyond expectation.

Transformational leaders work from a foundation of trust and motivate their teams by empowering, encouraging, inspiring, and coaching others towards a desired change. International research has linked transformational leadership to:

  • Increased performance, productivity, and satisfaction in the workplace (Bass & Avolio, 2000; Dum et al., 2002)
  • Greater workplace commitment, group cohesiveness, self-efficacy, and performance (Avolio et al., 2004; Pillai & Williams, 2004)
  • Innovation, creativity, and organisational performance (García Morales et al., 2008; Henker et al., 2015)
  • Workplace engagement and productivity (Salanova et al., 2011)
  • Team diversity, identity, and performance (Kearney et al., 2009)
  • Lower absenteeism (Frooman et al., 2012)
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Transactional Leadership

Transactional leadership refers a style of leadership that aims to ensure compliance with performance expectations. Transactional leaders emphasise roles, tasks, and structured processes to monitor the status quo and to reward performance. In contrast to Transformational leadership, research has consistently linked transactional leadership to lower levels of performance, leadership effectiveness and satisfaction.

Passive / Avoidant Leadership

Passive / Avoidant leaders take a reactive approach to dealing with problems and delegate responsibility and decision-making to others. Passive / Avoidant leaders are absent when needed and negatively affect productivity and other performance outcomes.